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RIP Protocol


Using RIP, a router sends its entire routing table (which lists all the other hosts it knows about) to its closest neighbor host every 30 seconds. The neighbor host in turn will pass the information on to its next neighbor and so on until all hosts within the network have the same knowledge of routing paths, a state known as network convergence. RIP uses a hop count as a way to determine network distance.

Differences between RIPv1 or RIPv2

1. RIPv1

  • A classful protocol, broadcasts updates every 30 seconds, hold-down period 180 seconds. Hop count is metric (Maximum 15).
  • RIP supports up to six equal-cost paths to a single destination, where all six paths can be placed in the routing table and the router can load-balance across them. The default is actually four paths, but this can be increased up to a maximum of six. Remember that an equal-cost path is where the hop count value is the same. RIP will not load-balance across unequal-cost paths
2. RIPv2

  • RIPv2 uses multicasts, version 1 use broadcasts
  • RIPv2 supports triggered updates—when a change occurs, a RIPv2 router will immediately propagate its routing information to its connected neighbors.
  • RIPv2 is a classless protocol. RIPv2 supports variable-length subnet masking (VLSM)
  • RIPv2 supports authentication. You can restrict what routers you want to participate in RIPv2. This is accomplished using a hashed password value
RIP uses four different kinds of timers to regulate its performance:

    Route update timer

    Sets the interval (typically 30 seconds) between periodic routing updates in which the router sends a complete copy of its routing table out to all neighbors.

    Route invalid timer

    Determines the length of time that must elapse (180 seconds) before a router determines that a route has become invalid. It will come to this conclusion if it hasn’t heard any updates about a particular route for that period. When that happens, the router will send out updates to all its neighbors letting them know that the route is invalid.

    Holddown timer

    This sets the amount of time during which routing information is suppressed. Routes will enter into the holddown state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is unreachable. This continues either until an update packet is received with a better metric or until the holddown timer expires. The default is 180 seconds.

    Route flush timer

    Sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its removal from the routing table (240 seconds). Before it's removed from the table, the router notifies its neighbors of that route's impending failure. The value of the route invalid timer must be less than that of the route flush timer. This gives the router enough time to tell its neighbors about the invalid route before the local routing table is updated.




R1#show run | sec router rip

   
router rip
 version 1
 network 1.0.0.0
 network 10.0.0.0
 no auto-summary


R2#show run | sec router rip

router rip
 version 1
 network 2.0.0.0
 network 10.0.0.0
 no auto-summary


R3#show run | sec router rip

router rip
 version 1
 network 3.0.0.0
 network 10.0.0.0
 no auto-summary


R1#show ip route rip

R    2.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 10.1.12.2, 00:00:05, FastEthernet0/0
R    3.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 10.1.12.2, 00:00:05, FastEthernet0/0
     10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R       10.1.23.0 [120/1] via 10.1.12.2, 00:00:05, FastEthernet0/0


In this above output if you check we have receive the route of router R2 loopback with the subnet mask of /8 which shows RIPV1 class full nature.



This output shows that we are running RIP protocol on this router with the AD of 120.

Rip v2 Config :-


R1#show run | sec router rip

router rip
 version 2
 network 1.0.0.0
 network 10.0.0.0
 no auto-summary


R1#show ip route rip

2.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
R       2.2.2.2 [120/1] via 10.1.12.2, 00:00:13, FastEthernet0/0
3.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
R       3.3.3.3 [120/2] via 10.1.12.2, 00:00:18, FastEthernet0/0
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R       10.1.23.0 [120/1] via 10.1.12.2, 00:00:17, FastEthernet0/0


In this output you can see that we are receving the update of R2 loopack with mask of /24 which shows that RIPV2 is a classless protocol .



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