MAC (Media Access Control) addresses are globally unique addressed that are written into hardware at the time of manufacture. The MAC address is a unique value associated with a network adapter. MAC addresses are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses. They uniquely identify an adapter on a LAN. MAC addresses are 12-digit hexadecimal numbers (48 bits in length).
What is Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)?
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) as defined in the IEEE 802.1D is a link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in the network. For an Ethernet network to function properly, only one active path can exist between two stations. Loops occur in networks for a variety of reasons. The most common reason you find loops in networks is the result of a deliberate attempt to provide redundancy - in case one link or switch fails, another link or switch can take over.
MAC vs. IP Addressing
Whereas MAC addressing works at the data link layer, IP addressing functions at the network layer (layer 3). It's a slight oversimplification, but one can think of IP addressing as supporting the software implementation and MAC addresses as supporting the hardware implementation of the network stack. The MAC address generally remains fixed and follows the network device, but the IP address changes as the network device moves from one network to another.
A VPN is a service that offers secure, reliable connectivity over a shared public network infrastructure such as the Internet. VPNs maintain the same security and management policies as a private network. They are the most cost effective method of establishing a virtual point-to-point connection between remote users and an enterprise customer's network.
Tell me why data link layer is divided into two layers?
Data link layer iz divided mac layer and LLC layer.
This LLC LAYER is form for NOVELL AND IPX protocol.
For ip protocol we ve SRC ADDRESS and DEST ADDR(for
communication),but wen we uses IPX/NOVELL protocol the
frame include 1 more byte named "don know"(through which
communication happens @ 2nd layer)....(inshort to
communicate wid IP and IPX/NOVELL we form LLC layer.)